Hidden Cues to Eating
- 10 Minutes Read
Those of us who have struggled with weight control know that there is more to eating than simply responding to hunger. We eat and overeat for many different reasons. By overeating, I mean we consume more calories than we burn so that we gain weight when we are trying to maintain or lose weight. Or, if we are already overweight, we eat enough calories to match our calories burned so that we do not lose weight.
Easy and accessible software applications such as MyNetDiary help us set reasonable goals as well as keep track of our calories intake and calories burned. But it can't do all of the work for us - we still have to make the decision to get off the couch and exercise and to not eat too many calories.
What drives us to overeat? There has been a lot of research in this area as the behavior of eating is actually quite complex. The purpose of this article is to help you identify cues to eating so that you can learn how to manage those cues and meet your short-term and long-term weight goals.
Internal cues are those that come from within and include sensations of hunger and satiation. There are hormones (peptides or short proteins) as well as nerve signals and neurochemicals (chemical messengers in the brain) that are released that drive our desire to eat as well as signal us to stop eating. Those satiety signals get released after about 20 minutes of eating. When people eat very quickly, they are more likely to eat too much since they are not giving their body a chance to tell their brain, "Hey, I am no longer starving now, so you can slow down or stop eating!"
Another internal cue is the volume of food and drink ingested. Foods and drinks that create volume in our stomach without a lot of calories are helpful for weight loss. Think water and fiber. Expansion of the stomach sends signals to our brain to stop eating since we feel satiated or full. Barbara Rolls, Ph.D., conducts research on the science of satiety and has a very useful book regarding how to feel full on fewer calories: "The Ultimate Volumetrics Diet: Smart, Simple, Science-Based Strategies for Losing Weight and Keeping It Off."
High fiber foods are filling because the fiber binds water and distends our stomach so that we feel full. Fruit, vegetables, dried beans and peas (cooked), and plain whole grains are all foods that have the potential to help us feel satisfied with a reasonable caloric cost. The lowest in calories and carbs in this category would be non-starchy vegetables - greens, broccoli, cauliflower, green beans, zucchini, cabbage, etc. This is why you hear the recommendation to fill half your plate with non-starchy veggies. It is also a great tactic for increasing your vitamin and mineral intake without a lot of calories.
High protein meals can also help you feel full on fewer calories. Aim for 20 grams or more of protein per meal.
High fat content can also make you feel satisfied. However, foods that are both high in fat and carbs could be triggers for overeating and work against satiety. This is one reason why people get into so much trouble with chips, French fries, and chocolate chip cookies.
External cues are those that come from our environment. Sometimes we are aware of these cues but more often we are not. They include environmental factors such as visibility (being able to see the food), how the food is presented, where the food is located, background lighting and music, aroma or smell, sound, cultural events and holidays, time of day, and even one's work schedule. External cues influence our eating behavior just as strongly if not more so than internal cues. One of the most entertaining books I have read on this subject is Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think. This book focuses on what causes us to eat more than we intended.
The following table contains a short list of hidden cues to eating that I find particularly useful to think about in terms of managing caloric intake. Most of these cues result in eating larger portion sizes or more calories than desired. The ideas presented below are mostly from Mindless Eating, but I have also added a few to the table based upon my experience as a dietitian.
I hope that this article has inspired you to think about the hidden cues to eating that can be affecting your calories intake. Although not all physical responses to food and food intake can be controlled, we can manage much of our exposure to external cues. We can also relearn how to prepare or select meals so that we are satisfied after the meal without incurring a huge caloric cost.
Visit the Community Forum if you have questions about eating cues and how to manage those cues. Good luck!
Last Updated on May 14, 2018